ANSI/ASSE A10.8-2001
American National Standard: Scaffolding Safety Requirements

The purpose of this article is to provide background information about the ANSI/ASSE A10.8 Standard. ASSE member interest from the Construction and Mining Practice Specialties continues to be strong in this standard, and scaffolding continues to be a significant safety and health issue addressed by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A new version of the standard was approved in 2001, but most stakeholders do not seem to be aware of this specific new revision. To address this issue we are preparing this overview and article for members of the ASSE Construction and Mining Practice Specialties and for stakeholders of the construction, mining, and demolition industries.

The current cost of the standard is $53.00 and for the cost of the standard SH&E professional would receive:

  • ANSI/ASSE A10.8-2001, Scaffolding Safety Requirements
  • ANSI A10.8-1988, Scaffolding Safety Requirements
  • ANSI A10.8-1977, Scaffolding Safety Requirements

***(Note: These additional historical standards will only be offered as a package until 8/1/2004. After this date there would be an additional cost to purchase these historical documents.)

While the older standards are out of date, they continue to serve as valuable historical resource since they are still recognized by the U.S. Occupational safety and Health Administration.

This specific announcement contains:

  • Background
  • Links of A10.8 Recognition by OSHA
  • Links Addressing Standards Recognition
  • A10.8 Table of Contents

Background

The A10 Accredited Standards Committee is one of the oldest voluntary national consensus standards developing bodies in the United States. It has existed in some form since 1944 and currently has almost fifty accredited standards and projects. For many years the National Safety Council served as secretariat of this committee, but ASSE became the secretariat of this committee during January of 2003. The scope of the A10 ASC remains unchanged and currently is:

To write and interpret standards relating to the protection of employees and the public from hazards arising out of or associated with construction and demolition operations

The A10.8 Standard has a long history with iterations of the document going back to the 1970s. The standard is recognized by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration in over two dozen places, and is also referenced by other federal/state government agencies. A Google search of A10.8 yielded almost 1,000 examples of citation/recognition of the standard by the private sector.

The A10.8 Standard

The scope of the standard addresses the establishment of safety requirements for the construction, operation, maintenance, and use of scaffolds used in the construction, alteration, demolition, and maintenance of buildings and structures. The standard does not cover permanently installed suspended scaffold systems or aerial platforms. The purpose of the standard is to provide reasonable safety for life and limb of those engaged in occupations requiring the use of scaffolding. There is one significant exception to the standard. In cases of practical difficulties, unnecessary hardships, or new developments, exceptions to the literal requirements may permit the use of other devices or methods, but only when it is clearly indicated by a qualified person that the equivalent protection is thereby secured.

Recognition

Below are links of where the A10.8 Standard is recognized by OSHA:

  1. 1996 - 08/30/1996 - Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry;Final Rule - 61:46025-46075
    DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. S-205] RIN 1218-AA40 Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry AGENCY: Occupation...
  2. Section 3 - III. Summary and Explanation of the Final Rule
    III. Summary and Explanation of the Final Rule The following discussion explains how the final rule corresponds to or differs from the proposed scaffold standard and the existing standard, and how th...
  3. 1990 - 05/17/1990 - The rung spacing between horizontal members of the end frames of metal scaffolds used as ladders rungs for access or egress.
    May 17, 1990 Richard F. Andree, CSP, PE, Ph.D. Executive Vice President Safety and Health Management Consultants, Inc. 161 William Street New York, New York 10038 Dear Mr. Andree: This is in response...
  4. 1994 - 02/01/1994 - Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry. - 59:4615-4619
    DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. S-205B] RIN 1218-AA40 Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry AGENCY: Occupatio...
  5. Section 1 - I. Background
    I. Background Congress amended the Contract Work Hours Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327 et seq.) in 1969 by adding a new section 107 (40 U.S.C. 333) to provide employees in the construction industry with...
  6. 1978 - 06/09/1978 - Open notch in the plywood of scaffold planks.
    June 9, 1978 Mr. John N. Roche Product Engineer R. D. Werner Company, Inc. Post Office Box 580 Greenville, Pennsylvania 16125 Dear Mr. Roche: This is in response to your letter dated May 30, 1978 con...
  7. 1983 - 10/13/1983 - A free standing scaffold shall be considered safe when the total height is equal to or less than four times the minimum or least base dimension.
    October 13, 1983 Dear Mr. Budd: This is in response to your letter of September 28, 1983, concerning a possible misinterpretation of our scaffold standards. 29 CFR 1926.451(d)(7) requires the scaffol...
  8. 1985 - 07/17/1985 - Clarification and the applicability of regulations pertaining to exterior building work platforms used for window washing.
    July 17, 1985 Mr. Richard L. Stewart Executive VP, Operations Steeplejac, Inc. 870 Decatur Avenue Minneapolis, Minnesota 55427 Dear Mr. Stewart: This is in response to your letter of June 10, 1985, i...
  9. 1993 - 03/29/1993 - Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry - 58:16509-16515
    DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR 1926 [Docket No. S-205A] RIN 1218 AA40 Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry AGENCY: Occupational S...
  10. 1993 - 09/03/1993 - Secondary wire rope suspension systems.
    September 3, 1993 Mr. Victor Saleeby Executive Vice President Scaffold Industry Association 14039 Sherman Way Van Nuys, California 91405-2599 Dear Mr. Saleeby: This is in response to your April 12 le...
  11. 2003 - 05/02/2003 - Walking and Working Surfaces; Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems) - 68:23527-23568
    Part II Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Walking and Working Surfaces; Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems); Proposed Rule Docket ...
  12. 1926 Subpart L App A - Scaffold Specifications
    This Appendix provides non-mandatory guidelines to assist employers in complying with the requirements of subpart L of this part. An employer may use these guidelines and tables as a starting point f...
  13. 1988 - 05/16/1988 - Procedural policy regarding elevated work platforms suspended from cranes or derricks used in general industry applications.
    May 16, 1988 MEMORANDUM FOR: GILBERT J. SAULTER REGIONAL ADMINISTER THROUGH: LEO CAREY, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF FIELD PROGRAMS FROM: THOMAS J. SHEPICH, DIRECTOR DIRECTORATE OF COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS SU...
  14. 1989 - 10/04/1989 - Two different design requirements for handrail and scaffolding.
    October 4, 1989 Mr. K.W. Ludwig Hercules Aerospace Company Aerospace Products Group Bacchus Works Magna, Utah 84044-0098 Dear Mr. Ludwig: In reply to your letter of September 27, 1989, we concur with...
  15. 1992 - 02/13/1992 - Planking requirements for scaffolds used in construction
    February 13, 1992 Mr. Ralph E. Bennett III, PE 424 Cherry Hill Road Dyer, Indiana 46311-3108 Dear Mr. Bennett: This is in response to your letter of November 19, 1991, and your Fax message of January...
  16. 1992 - 05/21/1992 - Riding manually propelled mobile scaffolds at construction sites.
    May 21, 1992 Dr. Richard F. Andree, CSP, P.E., Ph.D. Executive Vice President Safety and Health Management Consultants, Inc. 161 William Street New York, New York 10038 Dear Dr. Andree: This is in re...
  17. 1994 - 04/12/1994 - Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in Shipyard Employment - 59:17290-17294
    DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 [Docket No. S-047A] RIN 1218-AA68 Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in Shipyard Employment AGENCY: Occupational Sa...
  18. 1997 - 01/07/1997 - CPL 02-01-023 [CPL 2-1.23] - Inspection Procedures for Enforcing Subpart L, Scaffolds Used in Construction - 29 CFR 1926.450-454
    OSHA Instruction CPL 2-1.23 January 7, 1997 Directorate of Construction SUBJECT: Inspection Procedures for Enforcing Subpart L, Scaffolds Used in Construction - 29 CFR 1926.450-454. A. Purpose. This ...
  19. 1997 - 06/15/1997 - Scaffolds used in the Construction Industry.
    June 15, 1997 Mr. Eric Ames Tilles Morgan, Lewis and Bockius LLP 2000 One Logan Square Philadelphia, PA 19103-6993 Dear Mr. Tilles: This is in response to your letter of December 12, 1996, concerning...
  20. 1998 - 04/02/1998 - Tying or guying of supported scaffolds.
    April 2, 1998 Mr. Joseph Puccinelli, P.E. Director of Training and Industry Standards Safeway Steel Products Inc. N14 W23833 Stone Ridge Drive Suite 400 Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 Subject: 1926.451(c...
  21. 2001 - 05/10/2001 - Requirements applicable to the design, inspection, and testing of imported scaffolding.
    OSHA requirements are set by statute, standards and regulations. Our interpretation letters explain these requirements and how they apply to particular circumstances, but they cannot create additiona...
  22. A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry
    What are the highlights of the scaffolding standard? OSHA's scaffolding standard has several key provisions: Fall protection or fall arrest systems—Each employee more than 10 feet above a lower level shall be protected from falls by guardrails or a fall arrest system, except those on single-point and two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. ...
  23. OSHA Publication - Selected Construction Regulations for the Home Building Industry
    Selected Construction Regulations for the Home Building Industry U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1997 Material contained in this publication is in the public do...
  24. The 100 Most Frequently Cited OSHA Construction Standards in 1991: A Guide for the Abatement of the Top 25 Associated Physical Hazards
    PUBLICATION DISCLAIMER – OSHA's 100 Most Frequently Cited Standards: The information contained in this document was correct at the time of publication in 1991. Several standards have changed since that time....

In addition we are including the links below to answer what is perhaps the most common questions we receive in regards to use of voluntary national consensus standards by government agencies such as OSHA:

***Below is a link to Letter of Interpretation that provides a good explanation of how voluntary consensus standards apply to OSHA and enforcement proceedings:

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=24103

***There is an official memorandum of understanding between OSHA and ANSI. The link to the read the memorandum is at:

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=MOU&p_id=323

***The link below is to the Office of Management and Budget Circular OMA-A119, which explains how governmental agencies such as OSHA use voluntary national consensus standards:

http://www.dsp.dla.mil/documents/omb_a119.pdf

***The link below will take the reader to the interpretations procedures used by ANSI Accredited Standards Committees:

http://www.asse.org/z117-interpretations.doc

***The link below will take the reader to the Essential Requirements Document published by ANSI, which serves as the general guideline for the development of voluntary national consensus standards

http://public.ansi.org/ansionline/Documents/Standards%20Activities/
American%20National%20Standards/Procedures,%20Guides,%20and
%20Forms/ANS%20Procedures%20-%20Historical/ER0703.doc

ANSI/ASSE A10.8-2001
Table of Contents

Foreword

1. General

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Purpose 1

1.3 Exceptions 1

1.4 Mandatory and Advisory Rules 1

1.5 Equivalent 1

2. Referenced Publications

2.1 American National Standards1

2.2 Other Standards 2

2.3 Other Publications 2

3 Definitions 2

4 General Requirements for All Scaffolds 7

5 Platform Units and Platforms 10

5.1 General 10

5.2 Wood and Metal Planks 11

5.3 Scaffold Decks 12

5.4 Fabricated Platforms 12

5.5 Modular Platforms 13

6 Hoisted Suspended Scaffolds 13

6.1 General 13

6.2 Rigging 13

6.3 Powered Hoists 14

6.4 Electrical Wiring and Equipment 16

6.5 Personal Fall-Arrest Systems 16

6.6 Fall Prevention Systems 16

6.7 Manually Operated Hoists 17

6.8 Suspension Ropes 17

6.9 Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds 18

6.10 Masons'Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds 18

6.11 Light-Duty Masons'Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds

6.12 Two-Point Suspension Scaffolds (Swing Scaffolds) 19

6.13 Modular Suspended Scaffolds 20

6.14 Multiple-Level Suspended Scaffolds 20

6.15 Stone Sefters'Adjustable Manual Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds.... 21

6.16 Stone Sefters'Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds 21

6.17 Single-Point Suspension Scaffolds 21

6.18 Boatswains'Chairs (Manual) 22

6.19 Boatswains'Chairs (Powered) 22

6.20 Inspection 22

6.21 Maintenance 23

7 Wood Pole Scaffolds 23

8 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds 24

9 System Scaffolds ...............................25

10 Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffolds 26

11 Manually Propelled and Prefabricated Mobile Scaffolds 27

11.1 Work Levels 27

11.2 Casters 28

11.3 Use of Mobile Scaffolds 28

11.4 Marking and Labeling Requirements 28

12 Outrigger Scaffolds 28

13 Bricklayers' Square Scaffolds 29

14 Form and Carpenter Bracket Scaffolds 29

14.1 Scaffold Design 29

14.2 Figure-Four Form Scaffolds 29

14.3 Metal Bracket Form Scaffolds 30

14.4 Wooden Bracket Form Scaffolds and Carpenter Bracket Scaffolds 30

15 Needle Beam Scaffolds 30

16 Interior Hung Scaffolds 31

17 Ladder-Type Scaffolds or Platforms 31

17.1 Plank or Platform Supports 31

17.2 General Requirements 31

17.3 Ladder Jack Scaffolds 32

17.4 Step, Platform, and Trestle Ladder Scaffolds 32

17.5 Extension Trestle Ladder Scaffolds 32

18 Window Jack Scaffolds 32

19 Float (or Ship) Scaffolds 32

20 Catenary Scaffolds 33

21 Pump Jack Scaffolds 33

22 Horse Scaffolds 34

23 Crawling Boards (Chicken Ladders) 35

24 Adjustable Scaffolds 35

24.1 General 35

24.2 Hoists 35

24.3 Wire Rope 35

24.4 Carriage 35

24.5 Use 35

25 Mobile Work Stands 36

25.1 General 36

25.2 Work Levels 36

25.3 Casters 36

25.4 Use of Mobile Work Stands 37

25.5 Marking and Labeling Requirements 37

Tables:

1 Wood Sawn Plank Loading Chart 38

2 Dimensions and Rated Working Loads of Fabricated Platforms 38

3 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds (Light-Duty) 38

4 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds (Medium-Duty) 39

5· Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds (Heavy-Duty) 39

6 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds (Light-Duty) 40

7 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds (Medium-Duty) 40

8 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds (Heavy-Duty) 41

9 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (Light-Duty), 2-inch (1.90) OD Bearer 41

10a Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (Medium-Duty), 2-inch (1.90) OD Bearer 41

10b Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (Medium-Duty), 2-1/2-inch (2.375) OD Bearer 42

11 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (Heavy-Duty), 2-1/2-Inch (2.375) OD Bearer 42

12 Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Outdgger Scaffolds 42

13 Minimum Dimensions for Bdcklayers'Square Scaffold Members 42

14 Minimum Design Criteria for 25 lb./ft.' Figure-Four Form Scaffolds 43

15 Minimum Design Criteria for 25 lb./ft.' Metal Bracket Form Scaffolds 43

16 Minimum Design Criteria for 25 lb./ft.' Wooden Bracket Form Scaffolds 43

17 Minimum Dimensions for Horse Scaffold Members 43

B Minimum Wood Plank Properties 48

C Reliability-Based Separation Factors 50

Figures:

1 Figure-Four Form Scaffold 44

2 Metal Bracket Form Scaffold 45

3 Wooden Bracket Form Scaffold 45

Bl Platform and Platform Unit Categorization Chart 49

B2 Examples of Grade Stamps 49

DI Wood Planks 52

02 Metal Planks 52

03 Scaffold Deck 52

04 Fabricated One-Person Platform 53

D5 Fabricated Two-Person Plafform 53

D6 Fabricated Three-Person Plafform 54

D7 Two-Point Modular Suspended Scaffold 54

D8 Modular Suspended Scaffold 55

Dg Modular Suspended Scaffold with an Angled Section 55

D10 Suspended Plafform Arc Scarfing and Welding Precautions 56

Dll Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffold 57

D12 Light-Duty Masons'Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffold 57

D13 Masons'Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffold 58

D14 Two-Point Suspension Scaffold with Powered Traction Hoists 59

D15 Two-Point Suspension Scaffold with Powered Winding Drum Hoists 60

D16 Two-Point Suspension Scaffold with Manual Traction Hoists 61

D17 Two-Point Suspension Scaffold Ground-Rigged Sway Control 62

D18 Multiple-Level Suspended Scaffold with Powered Hoists 63

D19 Stone Setters'Adjustable Manual Muftiple-Point Suspension Scaffold 64

D20 Single-Point Suspension Scaffold with Powered Traction Hoist 65

D21 Single-Point Suspension Scaffold with Winding Drum Hoist 66

D22 Boatswains' Chair (Manual) 66

D23 Boatswains' Chair (Powered) 67

D24 Wood Pole Scaffold 68

D25 Tube and Coupler Scaffold 69

D26 System Scaffold 70

D27 Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffold 70

D28 Frame Scaffold Access (1) 72

D29 Frame Scaffold Access (2) 73

D30 Manually Propelled and Prefabricated Mobile Scaffolds 74

D31 Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold (1) (Fabricated Tubular Frame) 75

D32 Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold (2) (Fabricated Tubular Frame) 76

D33 Outrigger Scaffold 77

D34 Bricklayers' Square Scaffold 77

D35 Metal Carpenter Bracket 78

D36 Needle Beam Scaffold 78

D37 Interior Hung Scaffold 79

D38 Ladder Jack Scaffold 80

D39 Free-Standing Ladder Scaffold 81

D40 Extension Trestle Ladder Scaffold 82

D41 Window Jack Scaffold 83

D42 Float Scaffold 83

D43 Catenary Scaffold 84

D44 Pump Jack Scaffold 85

D45 Horse Scaffold 86

D46 Adjustable Scaffold 87

El Scaffold Status Tags 90

E2 Scaffold Use Tags 90

E3 Scaffold Log 91

Appendices:

A Survey of Job Site 46

B Platform Units and Platforms 48

C Calculation of Allowable Stress for Wood Scaffold Planks 50

D Illustrations 52

E Scaffold Tagging Program 89